Fire risk assessment
Fire risk assessment and related concepts involved in the assessment process are:
Fire risk assessment: the process of evaluating the fire risk that the target object may face, the vulnerability of the protected object, the effectiveness of risk control measures, the severity of the risk consequences and the fire safety performance under the combined effect of the above factors.
Acceptable risk: The level of risk acceptable to the organization or the public under the current conditions of technological, economic and social development.
Fire safety: In the event of a fire, possible damage to personal safety, property and the environment can be controlled below an acceptable risk.
Fire Hazard: The possibility of causing a potential fire, for the situation where the fire is caused by the fire hazard source as the object.
Fire hazard: unsafe factors caused by violations of fire laws and regulations, which may lead to fire or cause casualties, property losses, environmental damage or social impact after fire.
Fire risk: A comprehensive measure of the probability of a potential fire and the consequences of a fire event. Often used: Fire risk = probability X consequence expression. Where "X" is a mathematical operator, the expression of "X" is different for different methods.
Fire hazard sources: all sources that may cause the target to be affected by fire.
Fire risk sources: all sources that can have an impact on the probability of a target fire and its consequences.
Fire hazard: the possibility of material fire and the severity of the consequences of fire under the influence of external forces, emphasizing the inherent physical properties of the material.
Classification of 2. fire risk assessment
(I) by building status
According to the different state of the building, the fire risk assessment can be divided into pre-assessment and status assessment.
It is a risk assessment carried out in the development and design stages of construction projects to guide the development and design of construction projects in order to minimize the fire risk of construction projects in the basic stage of construction projects.
2. Status assessment
It is a risk assessment at the stage when a building (area) construction project has been completed, is about to be put into operation or has been put into operation, and is used to understand the real risks of the building (area) in order to take risk reduction measures. The status quo assessment is closer to the reality than the pre-assessment, as the risk of the building (area) is already known during the operational phase of the building (area). Most of the current fire risk assessments are status quo assessments.
(II) treatment by indicator
In the indicators of building (regional) risk assessment, some indicators are quantitative in themselves and can be expressed by a certain value; some indicators are uncertain and cannot be accurately measured by a single value. Therefore, according to the treatment of building (regional) risk assessment indicators, risk assessment can be divided into qualitative assessment and quantitative assessment. A commonly used qualitative assessment method is the safety checklist.
1. Qualitative assessment
It relies on human observation and analysis ability, with the help of experience and judgment ability to evaluate. In the risk assessment process, there is no need to convert uncertainty indicators into definite values for measurement, only qualitative comparisons are required.
2. Semi-quantitative assessment
It is evaluated on the basis of risk quantification. In the evaluation process, uncertain qualitative indicators need to be transformed into quantitative values through mathematical methods. Because its evaluation index can be quantified to a certain extent, it can accurately describe the risk of the building (area).
3. Quantitative assessment
It is the parameters involved in the evaluation process have been fully quantified through experiments, tests, statistics and other methods, and its quantitative values can be recognized by the industry. The evaluation results are more accurate because the evaluation indicators can be fully quantified.
The role of 3. fire risk assessment
The role of fire risk assessment is mainly reflected in the following aspects:
(I) the Foundation of Socialized Fire Protection Work
Fire protection work follows the work policy of "prevention first, combination of prevention and fire prevention", and is carried out in accordance with the working principle of "unified leadership of the government, supervision of departments in accordance with the law, full responsibility of units, and active participation of citizens", in order to effectively promote governments and departments at all levels to perform their fire protection Work responsibilities, solve the weak links of fire prevention and control in the area, and carry out regional fire risk assessment is an important basic work. The conclusion of fire risk assessment will guide governments and departments at all levels to carry out fire control work in a targeted manner, and focus more on solving the fire safety problems in industries and regions with greater risks.
(II) the Foundation of Public Fire Protection Facilities Construction
In order to scientifically and rationally plan urban public fire-fighting facilities and meet the city's needs for fire fighting and emergency rescue, the construction of public fire-fighting facilities including fire stations, fire-fighting water sources, fire-fighting equipment, and fire-fighting communications are included in the city's overall planning. It is necessary to carry out regional fire Risk assessment work. The conclusion of fire risk assessment will guide the government and departments to give priority to solving the basic and bottleneck problems restricting fire fighting and rescue, and enhance the ability of urban disaster prevention and mitigation.
Foundations of Fire Safety Work in (III) Major Events
Large-scale cultural and sports activities are characterized by intensive personnel, short time and large power consumption. Important political and social activities have the characteristics of high safety requirements and difficult fire prevention and control. In order to effectively do a good job in the fire safety work of the above activities, fire risk assessment should be carried out on the activity venue, the organizer and its organizational process and management before these activities are held, so as to timely find out the weak links in the organization plan, emergency measures, implementation of responsibility system, configuration of fire fighting facilities, preparation for fire fighting and rescue, and improve them.
(IV) the basis for determining fire insurance rates
Fundamentally, risk assessment originates from the needs of the insurance industry and gradually develops with the development of the insurance industry. It is just that my country's insurance industry itself started late, and the current development is not fully mature, coupled with the lack of corresponding laws and regulations. Support, fire public liability insurance is still being explored, and a mature development and promotion model has not yet been found. With the development and progress of China's economy and society, people's understanding of safety will continue to deepen, and the demand for safety will continue to improve. It can be expected that in the near future, fire risk assessment will play an increasingly important role in China's fire protection work.