The relevant concepts involved in fire risk assessment and assessment are:
Fire risk assessment: The process of assessing the fire hazard that the target may face, the vulnerability of the protected object, the effectiveness of the risk control measures, the severity of the risk consequences, and the fire safety performance under the combined effects of the above factors.
Acceptable risk: The level of risk that an organization or the public can accept under current technological, economic and social development conditions.
Fire safety: In the event of a fire, possible damage to personal safety, property, and the environment can be controlled to an acceptable level of risk.
Fire Hazard: The possibility of a potential fire, which is directed at the fire that caused the fire hazard source as the object.
Fire hazards: Unsafe factors caused by violations of fire laws and regulations, which may result in fires or fires that result in personal injury, death, property damage, environmental damage, or social impact.
Fire risk: A comprehensive measure of the probability of occurrence of a potential fire and the consequences of a fire incident. Usable: Fire risk = Probability X Consequences of expression. Among them, "X" is a mathematical operator, and different methods "X" have different expression spaces.
Fire hazard sources: All sources that may cause the target to be affected by a fire.
Source of fire risk: All sources that have an impact on the probability of a target fire and its consequences.
Fire Hazard: The possibility of a fire in a material and the severity of the consequences of a fire under the influence of an external force, emphasizing the inherent physical properties of the material.
Second, the classification of fire risk assessment
(a) According to the status of the building
According to the different conditions of the building, fire risk assessment can be divided into pre-evaluation and status assessment.
It is a risk assessment conducted during the development and design phase of a construction project. It is used to guide the development and design of a construction project so as to minimize the fire risk of the construction project at the basic stage of the construction project.
2. Status assessment
It is a risk assessment conducted during the construction (area) construction project that has been completed and is about to be put into operation or at the stage when it has been put into operation. It is used to understand the real risks of buildings (regions) and take measures to reduce risks. As the construction (area) operation stage has a certain understanding of the risk of the construction (area), compared with the pre-assessment, the status assessment is closer to the reality. Most current fire risk assessments are current status assessments.
(b) According to indicators
In the index of architectural (regional) risk assessment, some indicators are themselves quantitative and can be represented by certain values; some indicators are uncertain and cannot be accurately measured by a single value. Therefore, according to the construction (regional) risk assessment indicators, risk assessment can be divided into qualitative assessment and quantitative assessment. Commonly used qualitative assessment methods are safety checklists.
1. Qualitative assessment
It depends on people's ability to observe and analyze, and evaluates on the basis of experience and judgment. During the risk assessment process, there is no need to convert the uncertainty index into a certain value for measurement. Only qualitative comparison is required.
2. Semi-quantitative assessment
It is an assessment based on the quantification of risk. In the evaluation process, the uncertain qualitative indicators need to be converted into quantitative values by mathematical methods. Because the evaluation index can be quantified to some extent, it can accurately describe the risk of the building (area).
3. Quantitative assessment
It is that the parameters involved in the evaluation process have been completely quantified through experiments, tests, statistics, and other methods, and their quantitative values can be recognized by the industry. Because the evaluation indicators can be fully quantified, the assessment results are more accurate.
Third, the role of fire risk assessment
The role of fire risk assessment is mainly reflected in the following aspects:
(I) The foundation of social firefighting work
The firefighting work follows the work principle of "prevention-oriented, prevention-disinfection-combination", and is based on the working principle of "government unified leadership, department supervision according to law, overall responsibility of the organization, and active participation of citizens" to effectively promote all levels of government and departments to perform their firefighting. Responsibility for work, addressing the weaknesses in fire prevention and control within the region, and conducting regional fire risk assessment are important basic tasks. The conclusion of fire risk assessment will guide all levels of governments and departments to carry out targeted firefighting work, and more importantly address the issue of fire safety in industries and regions with higher risks.
(II) Foundation of Public Fire Fighting Facilities Construction
In order to scientifically and rationally plan urban public firefighting facilities and meet the city's needs for responding to fire fighting and emergency rescue, public firefighting facilities including fire stations, fire water sources, fire-fighting equipment, and firefighting communications shall be incorporated into the urban master plan, and it is necessary to carry out regional fires. Risk assessment work. The conclusion of fire risk assessment will guide the government and departments to give priority to solving the basic and bottleneck problems that restrict fire fighting and rescue, and improve the city's ability to prevent and mitigate disasters.
(III) Foundation of Fire Safety Work for Major Events
Large-scale cultural and sports activities are characterized by intensive personnel, short time, and large power consumption. Important political and social activities are characterized by high safety requirements, difficulty in preventing and controlling fires, and so on. In order to effectively carry out the above-mentioned activities in fire safety work, before conducting these activities, fire risk assessments shall be conducted on the venues and the organizers and their organization processes and management, so that the organization plan, emergency measures, responsibility system implementation, firefighting can be found in time. The weaknesses in the configuration of facilities, fire fighting preparations, fire rescue, etc., have been targeted to improve.
(d) The basis for determining the fire insurance rate
Fundamentally, the demand for risk assessment from the insurance industry is gradually developed along with the development of the insurance industry. It is only that the insurance industry in China has started late. The current development is not yet fully mature, and the relevant laws and regulations are lacking. Support, fire public liability insurance is still under exploration, and no mature development and promotion model has yet been found. With the development and progress of our country’s economy and society, people’s understanding of safety will continue to deepen, and the demand for safety will continue to increase. It can be expected that in the near future, fire risk assessment will play an increasing role in China’s firefighting work. The role.