Heat stroke emergency rescue knowledge
Common types of heat stroke
The so-called heat stroke is in the hot environment, the human body can not emit excessive heat caused by body temperature rise. Heatstroke can be divided into the following three types according to the severity of the disease:
1. threatened heatstroke
In a high temperature environment, people with heat stroke have dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, nausea, chest tightness, palpitations, weakness, thirst, profuse sweating, inattention, and numbness in their limbs. At this time, the body temperature is normal or slightly higher, generally not more than 37.5 ℃. This is a harbinger of heat stroke. If timely measures are taken, such as leaving the high temperature site quickly, the occurrence of heat stroke can be prevented.
2. Mild heat stroke
In addition to the symptoms of threatened heatstroke, there are also early manifestations of respiratory and circulatory failure such as flushing or pale complexion, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, profuse sweating, hot or cold skin, weak pulse, rapid heart rate, and decreased blood pressure. The body temperature exceeds 30 ℃. If treated in a timely manner, it can often be recovered within a few hours.
3. Severe heatstroke
Severe heatstroke is one of the most serious cases of heatstroke. If it is not treated in time, it will be life-threatening. This type of heat stroke can be divided into four types: heat cramps, heat exhaustion, sunstroke and heat stroke.
(1) heat cramps. It mostly occurs when sweating and thirst, drinking too much water and insufficient salt supplementation cause a rapid and significant decrease in the concentration of sodium chloride in the blood.
(2) Heat exhaustion. It often occurs in the elderly and those who have not adapted to the heat for a while. The main symptoms are dizziness, headache, palpitation, thirst, nausea, vomiting, pale complexion, clammy skin, weak pulse, decreased blood pressure, shallow and fast breathing, syncope or confusion.
(3) sunshot. Because directly under the scorching sun exposure, that is, strong sunlight irradiates the head, causing the intracranial temperature to increase, which in turn causes congestion and edema of the brain tissue. Because the main injury is the head, the first discomfort is severe headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, tinnitus, vertigo, restlessness, mental disorder, coma or convulsion in severe cases.
(4) heat stroke. Engaged in physical labor in a high temperature environment for a long time, the body produces too much heat, and insufficient heat dissipation, a large amount of heat accumulation in the body leads to a sharp rise in body temperature, which can exceed 40 ℃. Hair and a large number of cold sweat in the early stage, followed by no sweat, shallow breathing, rapid pulse, restlessness, confusion, decreased blood pressure, and gradually to coma with limb convulsion development.
Emergency rescue for heat stroke
1. General methods of emergency rescue for heatstroke
When implementing emergency assistance for people with heat stroke, the general method is as follows:
(1) from the high temperature environment. Quickly transfer the heatstroke to a cool and ventilated place to rest. Lay it down, raise your head, and loosen the buttons.
(2) additional liquid. If the heat-stroker is conscious and has no nausea or vomiting, he can drink salt-containing refreshing drinks, tea, mung bean soup, etc.
(3) Artificial heat dissipation. Fan blowing and other heat dissipation methods can be used, but not directly to the patient blowing, to prevent the cause of a cold.
(4) Ice. Cold compress can be applied to the head, ice packs can also be placed in the armpit, groin and other large blood vessels, and cold water or 30% alcohol can be used to wipe the bath until the skin is red.
2. Two specific rescue methods for heatstroke
(1) Rescue for those who stay in the hot environment for too long. Mainly include the following:
① Get out of high temperature environment. Quickly lift the patient to a cool and ventilated environment to lie down, head slightly raised, take off the patient's clothing.
② Artificial heat dissipation. Use a paper fan or electric fan to fan, and at the same time wipe or spray with cold water to speed up the heat dissipation of the patient's body. Ice can also be packed in a bag, placed on the patient's forehead, neck, armpits and thighs.
③ Replenish liquid. Sober, can feed cold drinks, sugar salt water and Dan, ten drops of water or Zhengqi water and other heat-clearing and heat-relieving drugs.
④ Coma resuscitation. If the patient is unconscious, acupuncture or fingernails can be used to pinch the patient's middle point (located at the middle and upper 1/3 junction between nasal lips), Neiguan point (located about 5cm above the inside of the wrist), and Hegu point (both tiger mouth), etc. to promote the patient to wake up. Vomiting, should be the head to one side, so as to avoid vomit choking into the trachea caused by suffocation.
⑤ Sent to hospital. For patients with high fever or spasticity, while actively carrying out the above treatment, they should be sent to the hospital for rescue as soon as possible.
(2) For the relief of heat-related persons caused by excessive fatigue. If it is a large number of overtired patients in a humid and sultry environment, the patient should be lifted to a cool and ventilated place to lie down as soon as possible, loosen his collar and belt, keep breathing unobstructed, and wet compress the forehead and neck with cold hand towels. For unconscious patients, acupuncture or fingernails can be used to pinch the patient's Renzhong point, Neiguan point and Hegu point, etc., to make the patient awake, and then give a sufficient amount of cool drinks, sugar salt water, to replenish the body fluid loss caused by sweating.
First aid should pay special attention to the matters:
(1) For those who stay in the hot environment for too long, the time should not be too long, as long as the patient's body temperature drops and wakes up.
(2) For the rescue of heat-related patients caused by excessive fatigue, when cooling down, wet compress the forehead and neck with cold hand towels, and do not give other cooling treatment, so as not to make the disease worse.
(3) after the rescue of awake patients, must be in a cool and ventilated place fully quiet rest, and drink a lot of sugar salt water to replace the loss of body fluid.