SECURITY KNOWLEDGE


China Defender

Tianjin Security Company: First Aid Common Sense

Release time:

2018-07-27

Author:

Source:


Summary:

How to do chest compressions chest compressions is a first aid method for the recovery of the heart when the heart stops beating by artificial methods. Heart stop should be performed immediately outside the chest heart compression, specific methods are as follows: 1, quickly put the patient in a supine position, flat on the ground or hard board, untie the collar, head back to make the airway open. Rescuers kneel (or stand) on the patient's left side and blow a few breaths to the patient's mouth first to keep the respiratory tract unobstructed and get oxygen. 2. The pressing site is the junction of 1/3 of the middle sternum and 1/3 of the lower sternum. 3. The root of the left palm is closely attached to the pressing area, and the root of the right palm is overlapped on the back of the left hand to make all fingers break away from the chest wall.

How to do chest compressions

Chest cardiac compression is a first aid method that uses artificial methods to restore the heart to beat when the heart stops beating. The heart should stop.Immediately perform external chest compressions, as follows:

1. Quickly place the patient in a supine position, lay flat on the ground or hard board, untie the collar, and tilt the head back to open the airway.Rescuers kneel (or stand) on the patient's left side and blow a few breaths to the patient's mouth first to keep the respiratory tract unobstructed.and get oxygen.

2. The pressing site is the junction of 1/3 of the middle sternum and 1/3 of the lower sternum.

3. The root of the left palm is closely attached to the pressing area, and the root of the right palm is overlapped on the back of the left hand, so that all fingers are separated from the chest wall.

4. The rescuer should straighten his arms, his shoulders directly above the patient's chest, and press hard vertically downward. Press smoothly,There are rules, there is no interruption, and the time to press down and relax is roughly equal.

5. Pressing times: 80-100 times per minute for adults; 100 times per minute for children; 120 times per minute for infants.

6. Compression depth: adult sternum subsidence 4 ∽ 5cm, child 3cm, infant 2cm.

7. For children, only one palm is needed to press the heart of the child against the pressing area, while the baby only uses the middle finger and index finger to press the heart of the child against the pressing area.Just press it, the position should be higher, one finger above the midpoint of the nipple line.

8, in the chest compression at the same time, to mouth to mouth artificial respiration. When there is only one person to rescue, you can get your mouth right first.mouth blowing2 times, then immediately perform heart compression 15 times, then blow 2 times, and then press 15 times; SuchIf there are two people to rescue, one person will blow first.1 time, the other person presses the heart 5 times, then blows once, and thenPress5 times, so repeated, until a medical staff arrived at the scene.

9, the force of the heart can not be too strong, to prevent rib fractures or other visceral damage. If the patient's face turnsRed, breathing heartbeat recovery, can feel the pulse beat, pupil retraction normal, rescue even if successful. Therefore,During the rescue, close attention should be paid to the observation of respiration, pulse, pupil, etc.

artificial respiration

1. Mouth-to-mouth or (nose) blowing method: This method is simple and easy to master, and the exchange of gas is large, close to or equal to the amount of gas that normal people breathe. It works well for both adults and children.

Method of operation:

(1) The patient takes the supine position, that is, the chest and abdomen are facing the sky.

(2) The ambulance man stands on one side of his head, takes a deep breath, raises the patient's jaw, keeps the respiratory tract unblocked, and blows the air into the mouth of the injured person (the two mouths should be tight and not leak) to cause inhalation. In order to prevent the air from leaking out of the nostrils, you can pinch the nostrils with one hand at this time, then rescue the person's mouth to leave, release the pinched nostrils, and press the chest with one hand to help exhale. This is repeated 14-16 times per minute.

If the patient has a severe oral trauma or trisomy, can blow into their nostrils(The mouth must be blocked) is the mouth to nose blowing. The size of the ambulance person's blowing force depends on the specific situation of the patient. Generally after blowing air, the patient's thorax is slightly elevated as the most appropriate. Between mouth and mouth, if there is gauze, put a stack of two layers of thick gauze, or a layer of thin handkerchief, but be careful not to affect the air in and out.

2. Prone pressure back method: this method is more common, but in artificial respiration is a relatively old method. Since the patient takes the prone position, the tongue can fall out slightly without blocking the respiratory tract, and the rescuer does not need to deal with the tongue specially, thus saving time (it is not easy to pull out and fix the tongue in a very short time) and performing artificial respiration as soon as possible. The amount of gas is less than that of mouth-to-mouth blowing, but the success rate of rescue is higher than that of several artificial respiration methods mentioned below. At present, in the rescue of electric shock, drowning, the scene also use this method. However, this method should not be used for pregnant women and those with fractures in the chest and back.

Method of operation:

(1) The injured person takes a prone position, I .e. the chest and abdomen are close to the ground, the abdomen can be slightly raised, the head is biased to one side, the arms are stretched over the head, one arm is pillowed under the head, and the other arm is stretched outward to expand the thorax.

(2) The rescuer faces his head, bends his knees and kneels on both sides of the injured person's thigh, puts his hands flat on the lower corner of his back scapula (about equivalent to the seventh pair of ribs), the left and right spine bones, the thumb is close to the spine bone, and the other four fingers are slightly curved.

(3) The rescuer leaned forward and slowly pressed down with force. The direction of force was downward and slightly forward. When the ambulance person's shoulder and the patient's shoulder will be in line, no longer force. In this downward and forward pushing process, the air in the lungs is pressed out to form an exhalation. Then the slow invasion relaxes and returns to allow outside air to enter the lungs to form an inhalation.

(4) according to the above action, repeated rhythm, 14 a 16 times per minute.

3. Supine chest method: This method is easy to observe the patient's expression, and the amount of gas exchange is close to the normal breathing volume. But the biggest disadvantage is that the wounded tongue due to supine and then fall, hinder the air access. Therefore, when doing this law, press out your tongue. This posture should not be used for drowning, chest trauma and rib fractures.

Method of operation:

(1) The patient is in the supine position, and the back can be slightly cushioned to bulge the chest.

(2) The rescuer bended his knees on both sides of the patient's thigh, placed his hands under the breast (equivalent to the 6th and 7th pairs of ribs), with his thumb inward, close to the lower end of the sternum, and placed the remaining four points outward above the thoracic ribs.

(3) Press down slightly and forward, and its direction, strength, and operation essentials are the same as the prone back pressing method.

Illustration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation



Check that the patient is unconscious. If it is determined that you are unconscious, call110,120 report the case and return to the patient's side at the same time. 120 emergency center can provide telephone assistance to help you complete the CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) procedure.

 

Tilt the patient's head down and listen to whether the patient is breathing. If the patient is not breathing normally, pinch the patient's nose and cover the patient's mouth with your mouth and start blowing until you see the patient's chest rise and fall. Blow two breaths for two seconds each.

 

If the patient still does not breathe normally, cough or move, start performing chest massage. Pressing down the chest between the two nipples1.5 to 2 inches, at a rate of one hundred times per minute for 15 consecutive chest compressions.

Continue to give two blows andFifteen chest massages until the patient regained consciousness.
Note: SingleThe speed of CPR and double CPR is the same. Double CPR is only the mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration and chest massage are divided into two people.

PS: Note: Continue to cycle at a speed of press: blow = 15:2.














 

 

Removing obstructions in the respiratory tract

-If you see any foreign objects in your throat or mouth, remove them first.
1, see if the patient can breathe or cough, if notWordsContinue with the following steps


2. Repeatedly use abdominal pushing (Hamlik method) until the foreign body is removed.

3, chest compressions can also be used for overweight or late pregnancy patients.



4. When the above methods do not work, every second should be sent to the otolaryngology department of the hospital as soon as possible, and the foreign body should be removed under the laryngoscope or bronchoscope without delay. If an adult or child is unconscious, CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) is performed immediately.









 

 

Poisoning first aid

 

1, if through oral poisoning, first of all to let the wounded respiratory tract to keep unblocked, determine the amount of poisoning substances and patients eat and time. Inducing vomiting can accelerate the excretion of poison, with fingers to stimulate the wounded hanging, throat, or give drinking water can help vomiting, but if the wounded coma, hysteria or swallowing corrosive and petroleum products and other substances, it is not appropriate to induce vomiting. Activated carbon can be used to help absorb a large amount of material after vomiting, preferably water-soluble activated carbon. Drinking water or milk can dilute the poison, but it is not advisable to give any water if the wounded is in a severe coma or hysteria. In addition, in some cases of poisoning, such as pesticide or insecticide poisoning, the patient cannot be allowed to drink milk.

2. If poisoning occurs through the respiratory tract, the rescuer should first avoid the spread of poisonous gas to himself, quickly send the injured to a ventilated place, loosen too tight clothes, remove foreign bodies in the respiratory tract, make sure breathing is smooth, straighten the patient's body, and make him lie on his side. If breathing stops, artificial respiration should be implemented immediately.

3, if through the skin and mucous membrane poisoning, you should first with cold water rinse the poisoned parts, and then remove the clothes of the wounded, rescuers do not directly touch the patient, so as not to affect, if the patient's respiratory organs have been paralyzed, you can not implement population breathing. If the poison invades the eyes, it should be quickly cleaned with a large amount of normal saline, and the patient should keep the eyes open for several minutes to help weep.

4. The treatment of food poisoning includes wrapping the patient's vomit or poisons and sending it to the hospital for inspection; secondly, fasting and intravenous drip to supplement water to prevent dehydration. The patient's physiological changes should be closely observed.

5. If a poisonous snake bites, do not panic and run. It is best to keep still, and it is best to identify what kind of poisonous snake bites. First responders should make the wounded lie down, tie an elastic bandage or handkerchief at the upper end of the wound (by the heart), relax every 20 to 30 minutes, and then seek medical treatment quickly. If you are bitten by poisonous insects, you can apply cold compresses to the wound and then send it to the doctor quickly.

 

First Aid for High Fever

Two modes of first aid are provided:

1. Wipe bath method:

Move the fever patient to a ventilated place and use30% of the alcohol in the limbs, head, forehead, chest and back, femoral groove, 5-15 minutes each time, rub until the skin is red. If necessary, wipe once every 30 minutes, such as alcohol can be replaced by white wine with a little water.

2. Ice compress method:

Apply cold water to the above areas with an ice pillow or a towel, cold compress each3-5 points to change once.

 

 

Burns First Aid

The most important thing in first aid for burns is to reduce the effect of heat on the skin. After burns, immediately place the wound under tap water and wash it with a large amount of cold water for more than 10 minutes. After washing, you must send it to the doctor immediately and keep it stable to avoid swelling or difficulty breathing. It must be taken care not to take off the clothes of the wounded and not to apply any medicine on the wound.

 

Heat stroke first aid method

   

Heat stroke is most likely to occur in high temperature or sultry air environment. The degree of heat stroke is divided into three levels:1. After a certain period of labor or activity in a high temperature environment, the patient has dizziness, dizziness, headache, thirst, hyperhidrosis, general fatigue, palpitations, inattention, uncoordinated movements and other symptoms, and the body temperature is normal or slightly higher. 2. For mild heatstroke, in addition to the above symptoms, there are symptoms such as flushing, profuse sweating, rapid pulse, etc., and the body temperature rises above 38.5 ℃. 3. Severe heatstroke, including heat stroke, heat cramps and heat exhaustion, fainting or cramping, body temperature above 40 ℃, if not treated in time, it is easy to cause systemic failure and lead to death.

 

 

First aid steps are as follows:

1. Move the patient to a ventilated place to rest and unfasten the buckle to let the body dissipate heat.

2. Supplementary water: Please provide adequate water for the patient. If you sweat too much or your face turns white, you should give salty drinks.

 

fracture first aid method

  When a fracture is suspected but cannot be judged from the appearance, but there is any pain or inability to move, first aid is still required to deal with the fracture.

1,Saving lives:Ensure that consciousness exists and breathing is smooth.

2.Hemostasis: If there is bleeding from a wound or open fracture, a clean cloth should be used to bandage the bleeding, but the exposed part of the bone should not be returned to the wound.

3,Fixed: Do not disjoint the fracture site, nor try to reposition it with appropriate wood to fix it, and fix the joints near the affected part and at both ends with splints., the splint must extend beyond the joints at both ends (if there is no splint, replace it with hard board, bamboo board or folded newspaper).

4,Fast hospital transport

 

Electric shock first aid method

   A strong electric current passes through the person's body, which may cause sudden death or faint from shock., the body will also have local burns

1. Cut off the power supply and make sure the injured person is insulated.

Call an ambulance immediately when you lose consciousness and try to wake the patient.

3, check the patient's breathing and heartbeat, if no breathing heartbeat is the implementation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (burns later treatment).

4. The range of burns is small and serious, so let the doctor handle it.

5, medical: for the sake of safety, should be sent to hospital first aid as soon as possible.

 

Drowning first aid

When someone is drowning, do not rush into the water. Water rescue tools are the ideal way. If the drowning person is still conscious, the most important thing is to try to keep his head on the water. The rescuer is best to approach the drowning from behind. If the drowning person has lost consciousness, he must be allowed to lie on his back and lift his head to the surface to keep breathing smooth.

 

After rescuing the drowning person, he must remove the filth in his mouth. If he stops breathing, he will perform mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration. If his heart stops beating, he should perform heart massage immediately. When rescuing a drowning person, it is not advisable to wrap it in felt and keep it cool to prevent hypoxia due to rapid metabolism.

Rescuers must pay attention to distinguish whether the drowning person is drinking fresh water or sea water, so as to help the medical staff to judge when treating.

Hemostasis

The amount of blood in a normal adult is about body weight8%, men slightly higher than women. If blood loss exceeds 1500cc, it can quickly lead to shock. If you have severe arterial bleeding, you may die within a minute.

Provide the following four methods of hemostasis:

1. Direct pressure hemostasis (venous bleeding): directly press the wound or around the wound with a clean cloth (please replace it with a new one after the cloth is wet), and try to avoid hemostasis by hand pressure to prevent bacterial infection.

2. Hemostasis method at hemostasis point

3, tourniquet hemostasis method (limb arterial bleeding applicable): with a special tourniquet or wide cloth, towel, rubber tube, etc., tied in the bleeding site near the body side. When the arm is bleeding, it is tied to the upper 1/3 of the upper arm, and when the lower limb is bleeding, it is tied to 10cm below the abdominal sulcus. Loosen the band for 15 seconds every 15-20 minutes to prevent local tissue necrosis or downstream nerve damage caused by poor blood circulation.

4. Elevated hemostasis: raise the injured part to a position higher than that of the heart.

 

nasal bleeding hemostasis

Simple hemostasis method: finger pressure nasal alar hemostasis method with thumb and forefinger pinching both sides of the nose alar, slightly backward force, head slightly forward, pressure for about 5~10 minutes, while mouth breathing, do not swallow. Do not swallow blood into the stomach to avoid nausea and vomiting. Suitable for home or emergency hemostasis.

Packing hemostasis: There are many ways to stop bleeding in the treatment of severe nosebleedsHowever, nasal packing is still a common method. The method is to achieve the purpose of hemostasis by compressing the bleeding vessel and occluding it. It is suitable for severe nasal bleeding, which is invalid by cauterization, gelatin sponge sticking, microwave and other methods, or the bleeding site cannot be judged by the violent bleeding.

  

 

Basic care of eye injuries

Correct handling of eye injuries caused by accidental injuries can avoid vision loss, because it is difficult to determine the degree of eye injury, so as long as the initial treatment is completed, it is necessary to seek medical treatment as soon as possible, send it to the ophthalmologist, your family doctor, or immediately go to the emergency room of the nearest hospital. First aid treatment is very important for eye healing:
Fine pieces in the eyes: do not rub the fine pieces or particles in the eyes, pull up the upper eyelid over the lower eyelid and let the eyelashes brush the fine pieces on the inner surface of the upper eyelid, blink several times to remove the particles in the eyes. if the fine pieces still remain, close the eyes and seek medical treatment.
Eye impact: apply ice immediately15 minutes to reduce pain and swelling. If a dark or blurred eye is usually a sign of intraocular injury, see your ophthalmologist immediately.
Eye and eyelid cuts: Gently bandage the eye and seek medical attention immediately. Do not try to rinse or remove objects stuck in the eye with water. Never apply any pressure to the injured eye or eyelid, and be careful not to rub the eye.
Chemical burns: immediately rinse with water, use your fingers to make your eyes as wide as possible, place your head under a tap or water from any clean container and pour it into your eyes for at least15 minutes, slowly and continuously, try to rotate the eyeballs so that the chemicals can be washed out, do not use eye patches, and do not bandage the eyes. After the above steps are completed, seek medical advice immediately.



Key words: